Hoyzer Scandal

You would not expect it in Germany!


Where: Germany (Second Division and Cup)

When: 2004

Duration: 13 matches

Organizers: Referee Hoyzer, Croatian gambling syndicate (Šapina brothers)

Perpetrators: Referee Hoyzer, numerous players, coaches and officials

Legal Repercussions: 

Four referees – Lutz Michael Fröhlich, Olaf Blumenstein, Manuel Gräfe, and Felix Zwayer – went to officials of the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund, DFB) with their suspicions about Hoyzer. Initially, the DFB did not immediately act, but after becoming aware of the accusations, Hoyzer stepped down from his role as a referee.

Indications are that Hoyzer had regular meetings in Berlin with a group of three brothers who were part of a Croatian gambling syndicate connected to an organized crime group. After a confession from Hoyzer, several suspects were put under surveillance and on 28 January 2005 a number of people were arrested. Milan Šapina, operator of the Café King sports betting agency and his brother Filip were taken into custody, along with Hertha Berlin players Alexander Madlung, Nando Rafael and Josip Šimunić. Madlung, Rafael, and Šimunić all played in Hertha’s surprising 3–2 defeat to third-division side Eintracht Braunschweig in their 22 September 2004 German Cup match, with Madlung giving up a crucial 80th minute own goal, only four minutes after coming on as a substitute. The trio came under suspicion for having been known to associate with the Šapina brothers, but there has been no proof that they actually participated in the manipulation of this or any other match.

As witnesses against Hoyzer, the Berlin referees Lutz Michael Fröhlich and Manuel Gräfe were immediately relieved of their officiating responsibilities for their own safety, being replaced by Franz-Xaver Wack and Torsten Kinhöfer. The referees scheduled to officiate matches in the 19th round of Bundesliga play on 29 and 30 January 2005 were all changed the day before the games were played.

Hoyzer co-operated with investigators in helping to uncover the details of the scheme, implicating other officials, players, and a group of Croatian-based gamblers. This led to an investigation by the league, as well as a criminal investigation. By the end of 2005, it appeared that the scandal did not directly involve the Bundesliga and was confined to lower divisions. The investigations lead to the following results:

  • Hoyzer was banned for life from any role in football and received a 29-month prison sentence. Jail sentences for Hoyzer and five other defendants were confirmed in December 2006 after they had lost their final appeals in court.
  • Referee Dominik Marks was banned for life and received an 18-month sentence for his involvement.
  • The three Croatian brothers orchestrating the scheme received sentences ranging from 35 months in prison to 12 months – suspended.
  • Referee Torsten Koop received a three-month ban for not promptly reporting an approach from Hoyzer.
  • Matches involving officials and players accused or convicted for their involvement in the scheme were subject to review by the league.
  • Hamburger SV received compensation worth up to €2 million for its forced early exit from the DFB Cup and compensation for certain other teams affected was arranged.
  • After review, replays have been ordered for a number of lower division games, while other results will stand.
  • A number of changes have been put in place or proposed to ensure closer oversight of referees and other game officials.
  • Once the criminal issues involved have been resolved, it is expected that a number of civil suits will arise as some clubs and individuals seek compensation for harm suffered as a result of the scandal.


The DFB-Kontrollausschuss (DFB Committee of Control) reacted to the scandal with a number of measures intended to prevent similar incidents in the future:

  • The committee originally intended to follow the UEFA practice of designating game officials on just two days notice before the match, rather than on the existing schedule of four-day’s notice. This suggestion was abandoned as impractical.
  • Referees who are promoted to officiate in second division games will first be observed over a three-year period in the Regionalliga.
  • Previously, matches involving Bundesliga teams in the German Cup had not been subject to observation by an arbitrator, but will be in the future. This fourth official will be certified for first division matches and able to act as a substitute game official on short notice if required.
  • Substitutions may be made for the two junior game officials on the day of the match at the direction of league officials.
  • Video replays will be used more extensively in future.
  • Where a potential problem has been identified with game officials, all those involved may be subject to an immediate interim suspension under the “Betradar” early warning system until the issue is resolved.
  • The DFB is proposing to offer its own sports betting program for the league in 2006–07 in order to have some control and oversight of the popular and lucrative sideline.
  • There is some consideration of responsibility for the selection of game officials being put into the hands of the DFL (Deutsche Fußball Liga or German Football League), the governing body responsible for all of German football, rather than leaving this to the control of individual leagues.

These measures are regarded as an immediate first step taken to manage the problem of match-fixing. Other more detailed proposals will be put forward by an expert committee appointed to address the issue. On 13 February 2005, the DFB announced the Ausschuss für das Problem Spielmanipulationen (Commission for the Problem of Match Manipulation) as being made up of DFB President Zwanziger, DFL President Hackmann, Treasurer Schmidhuber, and Secretary General Horst Schmidt.

The DFL is also considering a departure from tradition by employing professional officials in place of the amateurs now used. DFL President Werner Hackmann sees the controversial step as possible in light of the recent scandal. The former chairman of the board of Hamburger SV feels that the use of full-time referees earning a good wage could help deflect bribery attempts in the future. Former star player and head of Germany’s 2006 FIFA World Cup Organizing Committee Franz Beckenbauer expressed opposition to the idea of employing professional officials feeling that the current system has worked quite well and is solidly supported by the excellient training program run by the DFB. The former FIFA referee Hellmut Krug, DFB Director of Officials (Schiedsrichterabteilung) criticized the control system the DFB had in place because it had been known for some time that Hoyzer was making dubious decisions, but there was no action taken. He also emphasized the more general need for observers to prepare written match reports as is the practise for all Bundesliga matches.

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